The report underscores the importance of institutions in the implementation of a sustainable development agenda. The interrelatedness of the goals, targets and indicators and their cross-sectoral attributes calls for an institutional architecture that promotes inter-sectoral coordination, leverages multi-disciplinary synergies and enhances policy coherence. In this context, the report argues that institutional arrangements that tap the collective wisdom of science and indigenous communities will strengthen policymaking and enhance the achievement of Africa’s Agenda 2063 and the SDGs. Data deficits undermine country capacities to establish baselines, track performance indicators and reinforce evidence-based policy-making. The data requirements to monitor the large number of goals, targets and indicators of the SDGs and Agenda 2063 are immense and beyond the existing resources and capabilities of most countries, particularly in the developing world. Hence, the call for an African data revolution, with investments in national statistics systems that are imperative for effective follow up and review. In this context, multi-stakeholder partnerships will be critical to mobilize internal and external resources, strengthen capacities and facilitate the requisite technology development and transfer for the implementation of Africa’s Agenda 2063 and the SDGs. In addition to resources, realizing the aspirations of the new global agenda will require an enabling global governance architecture and policy environment that is representative, transparent and grounded in the principles of justice and equality. Notwithstanding the challenges, African countries have begun the process of implementing the two complementary agendas, demonstrating the continent’s commitment to transforming African economies within the framework of sustainable development.