Energy is the life blood of urban economic activity. It is central to people’s welfare and a functioning urban system. The promotion of adequate and sustainable energy requires specific attention as an indispensable component of shaping a prosperous future for Africa. The local level of government has an increasingly important role to play in shaping the energy supply and demand situation in urban areas. This is the case in Africa as well. The fast rate of urbanization and the lack of capacity in local governments across Sub-Saharan Africa is likely to contribute to a situation of increasingly inadequate energy provision, inefficient energy use and escalating transport congestion and emissions, with associated economic and social problems. However, the challenges are now better understood, and in some areas successful approaches are being deployed at the local government level. It is necessary to share lessons and move forward in a coordinated manner in recognising and building local government’s important role in delivering locally appropriate sustainable energy solutions if Agenda 2063’s hopes for a prosperous future are to be realised.